Melanoma may be a sort of carcinoma. it’s not the foremost common, but it’s the foremost serious, because
it often spreads. When this happens, it is
often difficult to treat, and therefore
the outlook could also be poor.
Risk factors for melanoma include overexposure to the sun, having fair skin,
and a case history of melanoma, among
Receiving an early diagnosis and getting prompt treatment can improve the outlook for people with melanoma.
For this reason, people should keep track of any changing or growing moles. Using adequate protection against sun exposure can help an individual prevent melanoma altogether.
This article covers the symptoms of melanoma, how a doctor would diagnose it, and ways to treat it. We also explain how best to stop melanoma.
What is melanoma?
A person could also be more in danger of melanoma if they need a case history of the condition.
Melanoma may be a sort of carcinoma that happens when pigment producing cells called melanocytes mutate and start to divide uncontrollably.
Most pigment cells develop within the skin. Melanomas can develop anywhere on the skin, but certain areas are more in danger than others. In men, it’s presumably to affect the chest and back. In women, the legs are the foremost common site. Other common sites of melanoma include the face.
However, melanoma also can occur within the eyes and other parts of the body, including — on very rare occasions — the intestines.
Melanoma is comparatively rare in people with darker skin.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimate that there’ll be about 96,480 new diagnoses of melanoma in 2019. They also estimate that around 7,230 people will die thanks to melanoma in 2019.
The stage of a cancer at diagnosis will indicate how far it’s already spread and what quite treatment are going to be suitable.
One method of assigning a stage to melanoma describes the cancer in five stages, from 0 to 4:
Stage 0: The cancer is merely present within the outermost layer of skin. Doctors ask this stage as “melanoma in place.”
Stage 1: The cancer is up to 2 millimetres (mm) thick. it’s not yet spread to lymph nodes or other sites, and it’s going to or might not be ulcerated.
Stage 2: The cancer is a minimum of 1 mm thick but could also be thicker than 4 mm. it’s going to or might not be ulcerated, and it’s not yet spread to lymph nodes or other sites.
Stage 3: The cancer has spread to at least one or more lymph nodes or nearby lymphatic channels but not distant sites. the first cancer may not be visible. If it’s visible, it’s going to be thicker than 4 mm and also ulcerated.
Stage 4: The cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes or organs, like the brain, lungs, or liver.
The more advanced a cancer is, the harder it’s to treat and therefore the worse the outlook becomes.
There are four sorts of melanoma. Learn more about each type within the sections below.
Superficial spreading melanoma
This is the foremost common sort of melanoma, and it often appears on the trunk or limbs. The cells tend to grow slowly initially before spreading across the surface of the skin.
This is the second commonest sort of melanoma, appearing on the trunk, head, or neck. It tends to grow quicker than other types, and it’s going to appear as a reddish or blue-black color.
Nodular melanoma is additionally the foremost aggressive type. Learn more about it here.
Lentigo malign melanoma
This is less common and tends to develop in older adults, especially in parts of the body that have had excessive sun exposure over several years, like the face.
It starts as a Hutchinson’s freckle, or lentigo maligna, which seems like a stain on the skin. it always grows slowly and is a smaller amount dangerous than other sorts of melanoma.
Acral lentiginous melanoma
This is the rarest quite melanoma. It appears on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or under the nails.
Since people with darker skin don’t typically get other sorts of melanoma, these tend to be the foremost common sort of melanoma in those with darker skin types.